One of the primary defensive mechanisms of muskoxen is to form a defensive circle in response to the presence of predators. If only one predator is present, muskoxen make a line facing the threat. If there are several predators, adults and offspring form a circle. Adults stand shoulder to shoulder facing outwards towards the threat, with the young inside the circle. This behaviour allows the group to stand its ground and fight off threats rather than (possibly fatally) expending more energy by running away. Under less intense or persistent threat the circle breaks and the animals run away to regroup elsewhere. Wolves are the natural predator of muskoxen. 16mm film converted to video, filmed by Andrew Forster at Nanuit Itillinga (aka Polar Bear Pass), Bathurst Island, Nunavut.